Monday, October 16, 2017

Staffing for ARFF Departments



Osan airmen by DVIDSHUB

For those departments having airport rescue firefighting NFPA 1710 references NFPA 403, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Fire-Fighting Services at Airports for minimum staffing requirements.

ARFF operations should be minimally staffed according to the index rating of the airport, as shown in these tables from NFPA 403.






Staffing above these minimums should be determined by the performance of a task analysis.  The task resource analysis is conducted in six stages and based on the needs and demands of the airport. The task and resource analysis model is outlined in Annex D of NFPA 403.

Stage 1: State the goals and objectives of ARFF services and tasks.
Goal:
Objective:
Task:

Stage 2: Identify potential incidents. These should be worst-case scenario based on event history, fire data, and facility statistics, and a risk assessment.

Stage 3: Identify types of aircraft most commonly used at the airport.

Stage 4: Identify worst-case scenario incident locations or possible areas of incident occurrence.

Stage 5: Combine Stages 2, 3, and 4 - correlate accident types with possible worst-case scenario locations.

Stage 6: Based on the scenario in Stage 5, conduct a task and resource analysis to determine minimum ARFF personnel. This analysis should be conducted as a table-top exercise in real time and in sequential order. Elements should include:
  1. Receive call, dispatch ARFF units.
  2. Respond to scene, operate ARFF vehicle.
  3. Apply extinguishing agents and deploy equipment.
  4. Assist passenger and crew evacuation.
  5. Access aircraft for firefighting, rescue, and other operations.
  6. Support and sustain continuing firefighting and rescue operations.
  7. Support and sustain water supply.
  8. Replenish foam supplies.

NFPA 1710 further requires that aircraft incidents have a dedicated incident commander.  Any airport fire department with structural fire protection requirements should meet the staffing requirements of NFPA 1710, section 5.2.2.



Monday, October 9, 2017

Fire Prevention Week 2017



The week of October 8-14 will be nationally recognized as Fire PreventionWeek. The theme this year is “Every Second Counts: Plan 2 Ways Out”. Having an escape plan can spare lives when seconds count.  This years theme reinforces the need for families to have, know, and practice a fire escape plan.

Fire Prevention Week has been observed every October (always the week of the 9th) since 1922. The NFPA established this week to commemorate the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. This fire, rumored to have been started by Mrs. O’Leary’s cow, claimed more than 250 lives, left 100,000 homeless, destroyed more than 17,400 structures and burned more than 2,000 acres. 

Public education plays a critical role in a communities fire prevention plan.  Here are some resources to utilize with this weeks focus on fire prevention.

Our public education efforts should focus on programs that are interactive, engaging and provide maximum benefit to the community. Interpreting the data and identifying the risks will focus your attention on the programs that are most needed. Here’s how it’s done.

A key component for effective risk reduction is face-to-face interaction with community members. This can be achieved through public events, fire station visits, and, most effectively, home visits. Community risk reduction programs, and fire crews involvement in them, produces three distinct benefits.

The most important component of community risk reduction (CRR) is strategic contact with the public. A strategic contact consists or much more than handing out stickers or plastic hats at the mall.  The strategic contact is a contact made that meets the objectives of the communities CRR plan, and is immediately beneficial to the person contacted.  This can most effectively happen in fire department home visits





    Tuesday, October 3, 2017

    Career, Combination, or Volunteer?


    NFPA 1710, Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career Fire Departments


    NFPA 1720, Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Volunteer Fire Departments


    These standards outline minimum staffing requirements for fire departments.  But which one should your department follow?  Is your department career, combination, or volunteer? For this answer we must look in the definition section of NFPA 1720.  Here we see the magic number, 85%.  


    If the department personnel is comprised of 85% or more volunteer members then the department is classified as volunteer. Fire departments composed of less than 85% majority of either volunteers or career personnel is classified as a combination department. Volunteer and combination department must comply with the staffing and organization requirements of NFPA 1720.  Departments having greater than 85% career personnel must comply with the staffing and organizational requirements of NFPA 1710.

    Related Posts:





    Monday, September 25, 2017

    How many firefighters do you need?

    The purpose of NFPA 1710 is to provide minimum criteria to address “the effectiveness and efficiency of career” fire department personnel and operations.  This standard outlines seven objectives that must be met.  Fire department staffing levels should be based on the ability to meet these objectives and to deploy firefighting resources as outlined in the standard. This task analysis should account for, life hazards to the public, safety of the firefighters, property loss potential, types of occupancies and properties to be protected, and fireground tactics, apparatus, and expected results.

    Sunset with burning building by Petteri Sulonen

    NFPA 1710 defines the following types of incidents and deployment criteria.
    • Single-family dwelling, defined as 2,000sq.ft., two-story, single family dwelling (no basement, no exposures)
    • Strip shopping center, defined as an open-air shopping area of 13,000sq.ft. - 196,000sq.ft.
    • Apartments, defined as a 1,200sq.ft. unit inside three-story, garden-style building
    • High-rise buildings, defined as structures with the highest floor greater than 75’ above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.


    Minimum staffing for full alarm assignments to single-family dwelling fires require a total of fourteen personnel, divided as follows:
    • (1) individual dedicated to incident command
    • (1) personnel to establish and maintain water supply
    • (4) personnel to operate handlines, (2) per line, minimum of two handlines required
    • (2) handline support members, (1) per attack and backup line
    • (2) personnel assigned to victim search and rescue team
    • (2) personnel to raise ground ladders and assist with ventilation
    • (2) personnel assigned to the initial rapid intervention crew (IRIC)


    Minimum staffing for full alarm assignment to an open-air strip shopping center fire incident requires a total of twenty-seven personnel, divided as follows:
    • (2) personnel assigned to incident command
    • (2) personnel to establish and maintain water supply, (1) per supply, minimum two required
    • (6) personnel to operate handlines, (2) per line, minimum of three handlines required
    • (3) handline support members, (1) per attack, backup, exposure line
    • (4) personnel assigned to victim search and rescue, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (4) personnel to raise ground ladders and assist with ventilation, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (4) personnel assigned to RIC, (1) officer (3) members
    • (2) personnel to provide initial medical care


    Minimum staffing for full alarm assignment to an apartment fire incident requires a total of twenty-seven personnel, divided as follows:
    • (2) personnel assigned to incident command
    • (2) personnel to establish and maintain water supply, (1) per supply, minimum two required
    • (6) personnel to operate handlines, (2) per line, minimum of three handlines required
    • (3) handline support members, (1) per attack, backup, exposure line
    • (4) personnel assigned to victim search and rescue, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (4) personnel to raise ground ladders and assist with ventilation, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (4) personnel assigned to RIC, (1) officer (3) members
    • (2) personnel to provide initial medical care


    Minimum staffing for full alarm assignment to a high-rise fire incident requires a total of forty-one personnel, divided as follows:
    • (2) personnel assigned to incident command, (1) officer with (1) aid
    • (2) personnel assigned incident command at fire floor, (1) officer with (1) aid
    • (1) incident safety officer
    • (1) officer, at interior staging area two floors below fire floor
    • (1) officer, building lobby operations
    • (1) officer, external base operations
    • (1) individual assigned to establish and maintain water supply to the standpipe system
    • (1) individual assigned to monitor and maintain building fire pump operations
    • (4) personnel to operate handlines, (2) per line, minimum of two handlines required at the fire floor
    • (2) personnel to operate handline, (2) per line, minimum of one handline required at floor above fire floor
    • (4) personnel assigned to RIC
    • (4) personnel assigned to victim search and rescue, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (4) personnel assigned to evacuation management, (2) teams of two personnel
    • (1) individual to manage and monitor elevator operations
    • (2) personnel assigned to firefighter rehab, (1) ALS trained
    • (4) personnel assigned to vertical ventilation, (1) officer (3) members
    • (2) personnel for equipment transport
    • (4) emergency medical personnel, (2) teams of two personnel

    These numbers represent only the minimum requirements for the initial alarm. As the incident escalates, it is understood that additional personnel and apparatus may be needed.

    To provide effective and efficient staffing levels, a thorough knowledge of the community must be had. This is why the conduct and maintenance of a community risk assessment is critical to, not just fire prevention, fire department operations as a whole.

    Related Posts: